Albinism is a group of hereditary conditions that affect how the body produces or distributes pigment (the material that produces color). People with albinism have a reduced amount or absence of pigment in their eyes, hair and skin.
There are generally two broad categories of albinism, both of which cause vision problems, including low vision. One type of albinism is called oculocutaneous albinism or OCA. OCA causes someone to have decreased pigment in the eyes, hair, and skin.
The second type of albinism is called ocular albinism. Ocular albinism primarily affects the eyes, while skin and hair are of normal or near-normal color. Because a child with ocular albinism does not have any outward difference in appearance, eye problems may be the first symptoms of albinism.
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